Reforms Taking India Ahead

How India must change if it is to be an advanced economy

Growth rates, political systems, reforms and the China Question: Financial Times’ Martin Wolf weighs in on the good news for India and has some suggestions on how to prolong the good times.

What will the world economy – indeed, the world – look like after the financial crisis is over? Will this prove to be a mere blip or something more fundamental? Much of the answer will be provided by the performance of the two Asian giants, China and India. Rightly or wrongly, it is widely accepted that China will continue to grow very rapidly. But what is the likely future for India?

I attended debates on this question in Mumbai and Delhi two weeks ago. The occasion was the launch of a report prepared by the Centennial Group for this year’s Emerging Markets Forum.* It addresses a provocative question: what would need to change if India were to become an affluent country in one generation? The answer is: a great deal. But one thing is clear: after the performance of the past three decades, the goal is not absurd.

Since 1980 the average living standards of Chinese and Indians have, for the first time in the histories of these two ancient civilisations, experienced a sustained and rapid rise. In one generation, India’s gross domestic product per head rose by 230 per cent – a trend rate of 4 per cent a year. This would seem a fine accomplishment if China’s had not increased by 1,090 per cent – a trend rate of 8.7 per cent. Yet even if India has lagged behind, the change has been large enough for aspiration to replace resignation as the ethos of a large and rising proportion of Indians.

The recent past offers at least four further reasons for optimism. First, the rate of growth has been accelerating: over the five years up to and including 2008, the average annual rate of economic growth was 8.7 per cent, up from 6.5 per cent at the previous peak in 1999. Second, vastly higher savings and investment underpin this acceleration, with gross domestic savings up to 38 per cent of GDP in the financial year 2007-08. Third, India’s economy has globalised, with the ratio of trade in goods and services up to 51 per cent of GDP in the last quarter of 2008, up from 24 per cent a decade before. This is not far behind China’s 59 per cent of GDP (see chart).

Finally, the democratic political system, for all its frailties, works. Indian democracy is a wonder of the political world. What happened in the past election seems a big development – the re-election of a Congress-led government, with a big increase in the party’s seats. It is widely believed that this reflects a choice of competence over caste and secularism over sect. Not least, the electorate registered approval of the competence and integrity of Manmohan Singh, the prime minister. I have been lucky to have known Dr Singh for three and a half decades. I admire nobody more. I only hope he is prepared to use his possibly final period in office boldly.

So what needs to happen if Indians are to enjoy an affluent lifestyle? The answer, suggests the report, is that India must sustain growth at close to 10 per cent a year over a generation. This is not inconceivable: China has managed that, from a lower base, over three decades. But it is a massive task, particularly for so huge, diverse and complex a country. Extraordinary change would have to occur, inside India and in India’s relationships with the world.

For this to be conceivable, at least four things would have to happen: the world must remain peaceful; the world economy must remain open; India must avoid the stagnation into which many middle-income countries have fallen; and, finally, the resource and environmental implications of its rise to affluence must be managed.

Moreover, India itself must overcome three big challenges: maintaining, indeed strengthening, social cohesion at a time of economic and social upheaval; creating a competitive and innovative economy; and playing a role in its region and the world commensurate with the country’s size and rising importance. In fundamental respects, India must turn itself into a different country.

Not least, as the report makes clear, India would have to be governed quite differently. In India a vigorous, albeit too often corrupt, democratic process has been superimposed on the “mindsets, institutional structures and practices inherited from the British Raj”. India has prospered despite government, not because of it. It is a miracle that the giant has fared as well as it has. But if this country is to prosper it must create infrastructure, provide services, promote competition, protect property and offer justice. The country must move from what the report calls “crony capitalism and petty corruption” to something different. The quality of government, now believed to be deteriorating, must, instead, radically improve.

Just how far the transformation would have to go is shown by the “seven inter-generational issues” on which this report focuses: first, tackling disparities, not least among social groupings, but without further entrenching group-based entitlements and group-based politics; second, improving the environment, including the global environment; third, eliminating India’s pervasive infrastructure bottlenecks; fourth, transforming the delivery of public services, particularly in India’s ill-served cities; fifth, renewing education, technological development and innovation; sixth, revolutionising energy production and consumption; and, finally, fostering a prosperous south Asia and becoming a responsible global power.

I take two big things from the analysis in this report, one for India and another for the world.

For India, I conclude that even sustaining recent performance is going to be really hard. The era when the country could prosper just by stopping government from getting in the way is ending. India now requires efficient, service-providing government by competent technocrats and honest politicians. Of course, many foolish interventions still need to be removed. The government also needs to refocus its limited energy and resources on its essential tasks. But it must also be able to perform these tasks far more effectively than it can today.

What I take for the world is that India, for all the huge challenges it confronts, is likely to continue its rise, if more slowly than the report assumes. The job of adjusting the familiar western ways of thinking about the world to the new realities has hardly begun. Within a decade a world in which the UK is on the United Nations Security Council and India is not will seem beyond laughable. The old order passes. The sooner the world adjusts, the better.

* ‘India 2039: An Affluent Society in One Generation’, Asian Development Bank 2009

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